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Hemorrhagic Shock

Click here to see the complete Indications for Use for the InSpectra™ StO2 Tissue Oxygenation Monitor.
Cohn SM, Nathens AB, Moore FA, Rhee P, Puyana JC, Moore EE, Beilman GJ.
Presented at the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Annual Meeting, September 2006.

A prospective observational clinical study was conducted over a 15-month period to identify the role that tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) monitoring with the InSpectra™ StO2 System could play in hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. The study was designed to determine if StO2 measurements on the thenar eminence are an indicator of hypoperfusion. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) was chosen as an indicator of hypoperfusion because it is generally accepted that early hypoperfusion is associated with later development of organ dysfunction. The study also assessed StO2’s ability to monitor tissue oxygenation changes during resuscitation. Seven Level 1 trauma centers enrolled a total of 383 severely injured patients.

Click here for a summary of study results.

Can Muscle Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) Identify the Severity of Shock in Trauma Patients?
Bruce Crookes, MD, Stephen Cohn, MD, FACS*, Scott Bloch, BS, Matthew Proctor, Ron Manning, RN Pam Li, RN, Jose Amortegui, MD, Lorne Blackbourne, MD, Carl Schulman, MD, Fahim Habib, MD, Dror Soffer, Robert Benjamin, MD. University of Miami.
Presented at: Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Annual Meeting, January 2004

Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) using the InSpectra™ System can be utilized to continuously and non-invasively determine tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) in muscle and represents a potential method of non-invasively assessing the severity of shock.

Tissue Hemoglobin O2 Saturation During Resuscitation of Traumatic Shock Monitored Using Near Infrared Spectrometry
McKinley BA, Marvin RG, Cocanour CS, Moore FA
J Trauma. 2000;48:637-642

HTI's NIR spectrometer measurement of StO2 in the deltoid muscle correlates to DO2I (r = 0.95) in severely injured trauma patients.

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Resuscitation
Cohn S, Crookes BA, Proctor KG
J Trauma. 2003;Vol 54 No 5:S199-S202

A review of published literature related to hemorrhagic shock by Dr. Stephen Cohn et al on near-infrared (NIR) technology indicates that NIR devices developed to measure skeletal muscle tissue are capable of measuring local vs. systemic hypoxia, providing the potential for clinical utility in hemorrhagic shock resuscitation.

Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Early Determination of Irreversible Hemorrhagic Shock
Greg J. Beilman, MD, Jodie H. Taylor, MD, University of Minnesota. Dean Myers, BS, Kristine Mulier, MS
Presented at: American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Annual Meeting, September 2004

Progression to irreversible shock may not be clinically apparent until a patient has depleted stores of fluid and blood. Non-invasive monitoring of leg and stomach StO2 with the InSpectra™ System identified unresuscitatable animals after the initial resuscitative bolus.

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Measurement Of Regional Tissue Oxyhemoglobin Saturation During Hemorrhagic Shock
Beilman GJ, Groehler KE, Lazaron V, Ortner JP
Shock. 1999;12:196-200

In a splenectomized porcine model of hemorrhagic shock, hind leg measurements of StO2 taken with Hutchinson Technology's tissue spectrometer, and oxygen delivery measurements taken from pulmonary arterial catheterization, show a linear relationship with high degree of correlation (0.94).


The InSpectra™ StO2 Tissue Oxygenation Monitor provides a direct, absolute measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in tissue (StO2), providing trauma teams the ability to measure tissue oxygenation and monitor it during resuscitation. It is the only tissue oxygenation monitor designed for trauma environments. The InSpectra StO2 Tissue Oxygenation Monitor uses near infrared light to illuminate tissue, and then analyzes the returned light to produce a quantitative measurement of oxygen saturation in the tissue's microcirculation.

The StO2 Trauma Study researched the role that tissue oxygen saturation monitoring could play in hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. Study results demonstrate that StO2 measurements less than 75% may indicate serious hypoperfusion in trauma patients and that StO2 functions as well as base deficit in indicating hypoperfusion in trauma patients.